An ovariohysterectomy procedure is also known as a spay. This is the surgery done to remove the reproductive organs in female cats. The ovaries and the uterus are removed to prevent pregnancy and the cat coming into estrus "heat". The procedure also has the benefit of helping to reduce the risk of the cat developing mammary cancer, especially if done before the first heat.
Before the cat is anesthetized, she is examined and has presurgical blood work done to check her organ function and general health status. After the cat is anesthetized, she is prepped for surgery using antiseptic solution to scrub her abdomen. The area of the incision is numbed with a local anesthesia, so that she is comfortable when she wakes up. A sterile drape is applied to the abdomen. The veterinarian is sterile as well, wearing cap, mask sterile gown and gloves. The cat is monitored using machines to measure heart rate, oxygen, and blood pressure. A technician or veterinary assistant constantly monitors the cat's vital signs and adjusts the anesthesia and fluid rate accordingly.
An incision is made, generally about 2 to 3 cm long on the cats abdomen, through the skin and the subcutaneous fat, into the abdominal cavity. The uterus and ovaries are identified. Each ovary has a large blood vessel which much be "ligated" (tied off ) called "the pedicle". This is done using suture and several ligatures. Then the blood vessel is cut and the ovary is clamped and removed. Once each pedicle is tied off, the body of the uterus is also ligated. The body is transceted (cut) and clamped and the ovaries and uterus are removed all in one piece. The incision is usually closed with absorbable suture material, in several layers. Removal of sutures is generally not necessary.
The cat receives pain medicine before and after surgery, as well as having several doses to be given at home. Generally cats are feeling great by the next day.
This procedure involves the removal of the testicles. The procedure is much shorter than a spay, as the abdominal cavity does not need to be entered. Neutering will decrease the tendency to roam in search of females in heat and decrease the risk of marking behaviour. As well, the risk of testicular cancer is completely eliminated with the procedure.
As with the spay proceedure, an exam and bloodwork is carried out. The cat is anesthetized and hooked up to the monitoring devices. The fur is removed from the testicles, they are surgically scrubbed and injected with a numbing medication.
An incision is made through the skin and the tough mebrane surrounding each testicle. The blood vessel and the duct that connect the testicle to the body are tied onto themselves, the blood vessel and duct are clamped, and the testicles removed. Sutures are generally not necessary to close a neuter incision. Initially there may be some swelling present in the scrotum after the procedure, but this resolves within several days.
The cat has pain medicine before the surgery, and goes home with some as well.